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Classification Of Edible Fungi By Taxa



According to the biological and ecological characteristics of the large scale fungi, as well as the progress of research and development of microbial scientists in China for a long time, many valuable and rare mushroom strains have been domesticated and cultivated to form the result of the listing of industrialized commodities, which has changed the division of the taxa of precious and rare bacteria.

Here, with the existing view, comprehensive Liu Guibei (2009) of the division, broadly divided into the following three categories. 

(1) The endangered species are mainly those mushrooms because of their unique biological characteristics and habitat requirements or because of the extremely narrow geographical area, habitat or host has been severely damaged, resulting in a sharp decline in population, or even near extinction, and the remaining populations are still seriously threatened. such as truffles, Tricholoma matsutake, wizened bacteria, cordyceps sinensis and so on. According to Yunnan trade fungus Diversity survey, endangered species of mushroom bacteria accounted for only 1.1% of the whole flora, indicating that the species is very small, and the situation is extremely endangered.

Such varieties have attracted attention, such as Tricholoma Matsutake has been included in the national level two protection plants. 

(2) Rare species of rare taxa have great scientific value, which is an important natural biological resource in China. such as abdominal bovine liver fungus genus (gastroboletus), red mushroom genus (Russula), goose paste Genus (Amanita), axial-abdominal flora (hydanangi-urn), chicken longitudinal bacterium genus (Termi Tomyces spp). There are more than 30 species of these rare species, most of them belong to single species, special species in China, regional distribution represent groups, and become relict or remnant species in the process of evolution, which has important biological and ecological significance for ecological vegetation restoration. Although the success of artificial cultivation reports, but only to smell its name, the market does not see its goods, the price is still in your place.

such as morel, bovine liver fungus, red mushroom, hydrangea, white ginseng bacteria, chicken longitudinal bacteria, etc., although there are reported successful cultivation, but market products are scarce, the existing price, the current prices, Morel dry products 1 500-3000 yuan/kg, red mushroom Dry Goods 400 yuan/kg, chicken longitudinal bacteria fresh products 150 yuan/kg, so still sit "jean" bit. 

(3) The sparse type mainly refers to the natural wild forest ectomycorrhizal fungi and the taxa that coexist with insect species. such as truffles, Tricholoma matsutake, bovine liver fungus, chicken soil 5L bacteria, red mushroom, tiger milk mushroom, lilac mushroom, chicken oil fungus, pine mushroom, odessa mushroom (Water chicken longitudinal), hydrangea fungus, green head bacterium, coral fungus, yellow handle chicken oil fungus (horn fungus), shuttle handle nipple mushroom (old person head) and so on. The number of these rare varieties of products is very small. China Edible Garland Yearbook) 2007 statistics show: The national production of Tricholoma matsutake only 1 535 tons, 16172 tons of bovine liver fungus, 1082 tons of morel. The total of these three products is 18789 tons, which only accounts for the total production of 27 varieties of edible fungi of the list statistics. 6.82 million tons of 0.11%, production is extremely scarce, the value of extraordinary.

Therefore, the artificial cultivation of the root and insect wild edible fungi and the sustainable use have been the focus of the world's problems and innovation research.